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Diplomat Guide to Securing Your Data

In this piece we will explore how diplomats can protect their privacy and security by examining the many vulnerabilities of modern day devices

December 3


London , United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland - 3 Dec 2017 - Ghassan Matar


In this piece we will explore how diplomats can protect their privacy and security by examining the many vulnerabilities of modern day devices. Our focus will be on the iPhone; understood to be more secure than an Android device.

Ever since the late 20th century, the evolution of the computer and in particular the smartphone has provided the ability for any spy agency, criminal organisation or even young and bored hackers to peek in on just about anyone and anyplace. Unlike the spy movies of yesteryear where the spy had to rummage through your bin, or place a listening device in the lamp or in a houseplant, the ubiquity of modern day devices from the Smartphone, Computer, Smart TV or any device, which has either a speaker or microphone, could in practice be used as a transmitting "bug."

This has become more problematic since manufacturers of Smartphones and laptops such as Apple and Samsung, have designed their products in such a way as to make it impossible to remove the battery, preventing you from isolating the power to the device.

Off course, the use of these devices as transmitting bugs is only part of the problem; there are now scores of ways in which your security can be compromised, here are just a few.

Using your device to spy on you

All smartphones and laptops are today equipped with built-in microphones, cameras and speakers. In some cases, multiple cameras such as the forward and rear camera on smartphones as well as multiple microphones. There is no nefarious design intended, quite the contrary, manufacturers have incorporated forward and backward facing cameras to give you the ability to selfie and take pictures; and they have incorporated multiple microphones to improve the quality of calls including noise cancellation features (reducing ambient sounds). If you take the iPhone 7, it actually contains 4 microphones, all of which are consistently listening to what you say, whether or not you disable Siri or switch off the phone. The evolution of the iPhone microphones is as follows:

  • iPhone 6s, 6s+, 7 and 7+ have 4 microphones.
  • iPhone 5, 5c, 5s, SE, 6 and 6+ have 3 microphones.
  • iPhone 4 and 4s have 2 microphones.
  • All older iPhones include a single microphone.

Apple does not publish the specifications of its mics, but a little digging revealed that the internal microphones are condenser, omnidirectional and support recording at bit depths of 16, 20, or 24 bits per sample and at sample rates of 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, or 96 kHz. Audio recorded from the microphone is presented as a stereo data stream with the same data appearing on both the left and right channels. The microphone gain can be adjusted from -16 dB to 30 dB.+ In effect, these are very high specification microphones with the added advantage that you voluntarily choose to take it with you everywhere, keep it close to you and conveniently for those who care to listen to your private conversion, you ensure that it is constantly charged.

Although it is impossible to have a smartphone without a mic; the disturbing fact is that the iPhone can never be switched off; it simply plays dead. Even when the battery runs low, it retains a portion of the battery life to keep itself alive. In effect, although the handset may appear to be shutting down when turned off it actually enters a low-power mode that leaves key communication chips still active.

This 'playing dead' state allows the phone to receive commands, including one to activate its microphone. The screen looks black and nothing would happen if you pressed buttons but the baseband (the cellular function) is still on, or turns on periodically".

Do note that all 4 microphones are always listening for “Hey Siri” functionality. You can test this simply by holding up any of the microphones to your mouth and whispering “Hey Siri.” No matter which microphone you whisper into, Siri will trigger.

Whisper away from them, and Siri won’t come up. iOS picks the best microphone at any given time.Agencies such as the CIA and FBI have had the technology to use mobile phones as an aid for spying for the past 10 years.In 2006 a technique known as a “roving bug” was discovered which allowed agents to remotely activate a phone’s microphone and listen to nearby conversations.Shocking as it may be, anyone’s cell phone can be turned into a bugging device worthy of the CIA using cell phone spy programs.

In fact, it is much easier to spy on a cell phone than most of you think. All it takes for an unscrupulous attacker to remotely connect with your cell phone over the internet is executing a few simple commands from within a cell phone spy app that can be purchased online.

With an inexpensive cell phone spy app that can be purchased online, anyone is able to spy on cell phone without being anywhere near the device. The app allows you to see virtually everything that takes place on the target phone including text messages, calls, GPS location, photos, videos, emails and more.

The app is called DDI Utilities and is developed and marketed by DDI Software Solutions Inc., a US based corporation that specializes in security apps and information gathering technology. Using this app enables a person to spy on a cell phone virtually the same as any government or law enforcement agency could. They could have access to just about anything that happens on a person’s phone possibly without them ever knowing.

The program was every bit invasive as you might think. The program gathered text messages, calls, GPS tracking information, social media messages and pictures and just about everything else that transpired on the phone.  With the “Stealth Camera” feature one can secretly take a picture using the telephones camera and have that picture sent to another phone acting as the controller. Think of it this way; you are in a private meeting and the entire surrounding is being monitored remotely. Pictures can be taken by simply issuing a command. A little creepy, but wait, it gets worse…

With the “listen to surroundings” feature activated the microphone on the compromised phone, will transmit every sound around the device. The entire conversation can be heard as if the person were standing there and snooping in a conventional way. This type of application is capable of intrusive surveillance and it is available to the average consumer for less than $70.

From our investigation, we can draw no other conclusion other than to say that it is absolutely possible to spy on an iPhone without jailbreaking it and without having it in your possession. These cell phone spy apps that exist today operate by establishing a remote connection to the phone they are monitoring.

Once that connection is established any information on the targeted phone can fall prey to the person operating the spy software. If you have a phone that you feel may have been compromised, it is advisable that you replace the phone as simply changing your number or performing a factory reset may not be sufficient to remove the spy program from your phone.

How Phones Get Compromised

Cellphone Cloning

Cellular phone security has come a long way since the days when the old analogue networks were in place. Cellular fraud became a serious problem which occurred at a rather high rate.

Although today's modern digital networks and cell handset manufacturers have taken extraordinary steps toward making cell phone fraud more difficult, there are some ill-intentioned individuals who continue to find ways to circumvent even the highest state of modern technology. Cell phone cloning is one of the most notorious methods of cell phone compromise.

Cloning a SIM card is very basic, all one needs is the IMSI number (similar to the IMEI) and the authentication key, which is stored on the SIM chip itself and can be retrieved electronically by extracting these two secret codes from the SIM and program it into a new blank smart card. Since the operator authentication on SIM is based on these values, it enables someone to fool the operators in thinking that it’s the original SIM, this authentication is a flaw with the GSM technology.

It is very easy to read or copy a SIM if you can physically get the card (anyone leaving the phone alone on a desk etc. for a few minutes for example.) Various hardware and software exists that lets you see the SIM card including one I have tested called SIM Reader or the newer SIM ExplorerDekart SIM Explorer.

Physical Possession/Loss or Theft of Device

The most obvious compromise is when a spy agency or criminal network gets physical hold of your phone; even for just a few minutes. Imagine losing your phone and having it returned by either the Police or a good Samaritan. Chances are, the device was stolen from you in the first place, compromised and duly returned to its rightful owner.

Physical Possession/Damaged Phone

Many of us occasionally drop the phone, interrupt an upgrade process or install software that bricks the phone. The term brick is when a smartphone is rendered as useful as a brick. In most cases, we ask family or close friends to help out and in the worst case, we take it to the hundreds of small smartphone repair shops.

You should seriously reconsider taking your phone to these small repair shops. Smartphones have no repairable parts that restore the phone to its original state; furthermore, any software fix to a bricked phone is simply following a set of cryptic but relatively easy instructions which would allow you to restore a phone using a backup or in the absence of one, by overwriting your phone with a clean/fresh install.

Taking your phone to these shops is a sure way of getting your phone compromised whether by government agencies or criminal organisations. The solution to a broken phone is to simply replace it.

Compromised Backups

Your iPhone backup can also be compromised. This means that securing your laptop is just as important as securing your phone. There are many cases in which a small self-erasing virus enters your device through numerous ways and simply infects your backup devices. This method is a favourite amongst spy agencies who will then have someone steal your phone, forcing you to purchase a new one.

Once you purchase a new device, you will inadvertently introduce the compromised spyware by restoring your new phone with an old backup. Laptops are easier to compromise, and it is relatively straight forward to find iTunes backups and infect them. The virus self-destroys, leaving no trace. The most common way backups can be compromised is through Open WiFi networks.

Compromised WiFI networks/Honeypot

There are a few big problems with using a public Wi-Fi network. The open nature of the network allows for snooping, the network could be full of compromised machines, or — most worryingly — the hotspot itself could be malicious. When you connect to an open Wi-Fi network like one at a coffee shop or airport, the network is generally unencrypted — you can tell because you don’t have to enter a passphrase when connecting.

Your unencrypted network traffic is then clearly visible to everyone in range. People can see what unencrypted web pages you’re visiting, what you’re typing into unencrypted web forms, and even see which encrypted websites you’re connected to — so if you’re connected to your bank’s website, they’d know it, although they wouldn’t know what you were doing. Using this data, they can then compromise your laptop.

So what about encrypted connections? In theory, it should be safe because the encryption ensures you’re actually connected to your bank’s website and no one can eavesdrop. In practice, there are a variety of attacks that can be performed against you if you were to connect to your bank’s website on public Wi-Fi. For example, sslstrip can transparently hijack HTTP connections.

When the site redirects to HTTPS, the software can convert those links to use a “look-alike HTTP link” or “homograph-similar HTTPS link” — in other words, a domain name that looks identical to the actual domain name, but which actually uses different special characters. This can happen transparently, allowing a malicious Wi-Fi hotspot to perform a man-in-the-middle attack and intercept secure banking traffic.

More worryingly, the Public network shares your files (if enabled) with other devices sharing that connection.

Pirate Software

Most people have thought about or downloaded pirated software, movies or games. Even more people have been fooled into visiting a site promising something enticing, like a free product or service, and the majority of people have been fooled into visiting a site to view a video or listen to music which requires a special CODEC to be installed.

In all these cases, and depending on your PC type, operating system, version and patches installed, your device will have been compromised in some way. While in the majority of cases, the intentions are purely criminal, in the Middle East, this has been a favourite tactic of the Iranian and Israeli governments.

We tested around 50 pirate software and found them all containing key loggers, hidden backdoor access, analysis of all hard drive contents and the subsequent transmission of specific data. Furthermore, these hard to detect malware, slowly spread to other devices whenever a file is being moved; this includes copying files, inserting a flash drive, mailing a document or connecting to a network. In the context of smartphones, this method is likely to also infect any smartphone backup devices and use any vulnerabilities to infect any device plugged into that device i.e. during charging or copying of music. The solution is never to use pirated software and to anonymously purchase a copy of the software from a random retailer. In the case of downloadable software, you should use a machine of a friend and download the code onto a USB stick and then install it on your machine.

Pre-Compromised Phones

When buying a phone, it is human nature to assume that the phone cannot be pre-compromised; after all it is impossible to compromise every phone, and major manufacturers would not be stupid enough to allow their products to be knowingly compromised and lastly, because the individual can randomly pick a shop; the chance of compromise is so small; that it is worth mitigating. Unfortunately, that is not the case.

First, a manufacturer can be forced to comply with government demands, especially in the heightened state of alert we live in; furthermore, a government would only need one or two individuals placed in a role that provides them access to the code base after it has been verified but prior to it being imaged for release.

Governments can easily compromise all phones but only activate specific ones. Once a person of interest is identified, all they need is the user’s IMEI which is easy to obtain once they know their phone number. You cannot place a call without revealing your IMEI. Hence, using that IMEI, instructions can be sent to the phone through an SMS, a phone call or by being in the vicinity of the phone. This would then activate the phone to begin transmitting your data.

Ministry/Embassy Tenders

Another easy way to compromise a large set of useful smartphones is to target large IT tenders intended for Ministries and Embassies. This is quite an old practice, but still worth considering. Governments agencies are required to acquire IT hardware through an open tender process. This gives an advantage to any agency targeting those ministries because the incentive is not profit, they are able to undercut any other supplier and win the tender. Furthermore, they are able to compromise every machine using a combination of hardware and software.

The most common approach is to introduce the compromise on a chip inside the computer’s circuit board. This hidden flash, would not be visible within the OS, but would continuously infect the machine, even after a clean install. The actual machines would not be immediately compromised to ensure they would pass any security checks.

Untethered/No Jailbreak Compromise

Most of the Smartphone compromise methods discussed above require professional access to the device to compromise it and use it as a surveillance tool against you; however, there are other methods that don’t require any technical skills, and can be installed by anyone. One method is mSpy, a consumer solution that provides some degree of control of a third-party iPhone, although it does not turn it into a surveillance bug. This method only requires knowledge of the user’s apple ID and password, which is relatively easy to obtain through malware and other means.

This method gives access to the phone’s iCloud account which can often contain the backup data for both the phone and the laptop (if that is being used). With their latest version, you can intercept live calls, crack passwords. view text messages, online activities, browser history, keylogger, call blocking, call logs, contact list, apps list and app blocking, and will monitor all activity on WhatsApp, Viber, Skype, Snapchat, iMessage, Telegram, Tinder, Line, Hangouts and Facebook Messenger.

You can see messages, chats, pictures and videos shared on these platforms. Other dangerous features include locking the phone, wiping the phone data. Sim change notification and app control.

Spying on Security-Aware Targets

There are several solutions on the market designed to spy on targets who are considered security-aware and believe they have covered their tracks sufficiently. One such solution is FinSpy, which is a field-proven Remote Monitoring Solution that enables Governments to face the current challenges of monitoring Mobile and Security-Aware Targets that regularly change location, use encrypted and anonymous communication channels and reside in foreign countries.

FinSpy is typically installed on several computer systems inside Internet Cafes in critical areas in order to monitor them for suspicious activity, especially Skype communication to foreign individuals. Using the Webcam, pictures of the Targets can be taken while they were using the system.

The software, which can be activated remotely, can evade all known Anti-virus systems, can monitor Skype communications in full, VoIP, email and chats and has a host of other features including silent file extraction, country tracing, live remote forensics and live surveillance. The solution can infect all known operating systems including Linux, Mac OSX, Windows and any UNIX variant.

Public/Airport Chargers

Public charging stations and Wi-Fi access points are found in places like airports, planes, conference centres and parks, so people can always have access to their phones and data. They are convenient and in many cases can be life savers, but if you cherish your privacy and security you should think again about using them.​ Connecting your phone to an unknown port has its risks. The cord you use to charge your phone is also the same cable and connectors that is used to send data from your phone to other devices. ​For instance, when you plug your iPhone into your Mac with the charging cord, you can download photos from your phone to your computer.

That includes your email, text messages, photos and contacts. It's called "juice jacking," a term coined by researchers back in 2011. Last year, the same researchers demonstrated "video jacking," using hacked ports and your phone's video display to record everything you type and look at.

DNS Hijacking

Another way for your phone to be compromised is through DNS Hijacking which is a process in which an individual redirects queries to a domain name server (DNS).

​It may be accomplished through the use of malicious software or unauthorized modification of a server. Once the individual has control of the DNS, they can direct others who access it to a web page that looks the same, but contains extra content such as advertisements. They may also direct users to pages containing malware which can compromise your phone and computer.


The Internet is abuzz with reports of mysterious devices sprinkled across America—many of them on military bases—that connect to your phone by mimicking cell phone towers and sucking up your data.

There is little public information about these devices, but they are the new favourite toy of government agencies of all stripes; everyone from the National Security Agency to local police forces are using them.

These fake towers, known as “interceptors,” were discovered in July by users of the CryptoPhone500, one of the ultra-secure cell phones released after Edward Snowden’s leaks about NSA snooping. The phone is essentially a Samsung Galaxy S3 customized with high-level encryption that costs around $3,500. While driving around the country, CryptoPhone users plotted on a map every time they connected to a nameless tower (standard towers run by wireless service providers like Verizon usually have names) and received an alert that the device had turned off their phone’s encryption (allowing their messages to be read).

While the abilities of these interceptors vary, the full-featured versions available to government agencies are capable of a panoply of interceptions. For example, the VME Dominator can capture calls and texts, and can even control the intercepted phone.


Another method is Dirtboxes in which secret fake cell phone towers are attached to airplanes to scan citizens' cell phones and collect their data.

Antivirus Software

Antivirus programs, especially the free ones can take advantage of their trusted status to steal personal data and generally spy on you. Generally speaking, Antivirus software falls under the same category as other forms of compromise. If an agency wishes to compromise an individual’s device, then the perfect way is to get the user to install the covert software themselves.

To do this, a user’s computer is infected with an annoying but harmless virus; the user would then research for a fix and come across an antivirus or malware remover specifically designed to eliminate this annoying virus. The user would then voluntarily download and install the surveillance software and more importantly, keep it up to date. This trust factor ensures that the user feels confident about the surveillance software, although they have no idea it is actually a surveillance tool.

 Last week, the US has asked all government agencies to remove all Kaspersky antivirus software from any government or official computer.

So Who’s spying on you?

Few organizations have caught as much of the spotlight as the National Security Agency (NSA). But even outside of the States, many governments have their own version of the NSA. Generally, every government will use one or more of these techniques whenever you are in their catchment area. The more prominent ones, have worldwide capabilities that enable them to spy on you anywhere in the world.

Some countries like the United Arab Emirates have spent billions of dollars setting up a wide spy net allowing them to spy on you from the moment you land at the airport right the way until you leave the country. The UAE is considered a high biometric risk country because they have linked together all forms of communications, hotels, cameras and credit card transactions into a single net under the Interior Ministry and the intelligence services.

 The most prominent Intelligence agencies are:

  • US's National Security Agency (NSA)
  • Russia's External Intelligence Bureau (FSB)
  • ​China's Ministry of State Security (MSS)
  • UK’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ)
  • Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC)
  • Australian Signals Directorate (ASD)
  • New Zealand’s Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB)

Other than Russia and China, the above agencies form the Five Eyes alliance. These government organizations regularly collaborate on spy programs with silly code names, but their work is no laughing matter. Some agencies like the Mossad, who are often over rated, typically target all Middle Eastern diplomats regardless of their caliber.

Protecting your Computer

Before we proceed, it’s important to hammer this point home: there is no protection or system that is completely, 100 percent guaranteed, safe from hackers. Given enough time and money, an experienced hacker can hack into any system.

Surveillance organizations and technology companies have both time and money. That means yes, they could hack into your computer if they were specifically targeting you. However, it’s unlikely they’d dedicate their resources to zero in on the average citizen. It would cost them too much time and money if they scaled that up across the board.

Imagine if every citizen made it more difficult (and therefore expensive) for these organizations to spy on them. It would become more expensive for these programs to keep an eye on everyone. That would make it more difficult for them to keep a close eye on the majority of people.

A simple, but fundamental, step to privacy is to encrypt your data. Whether it’s the government or some hacker spying on you, encryption makes your information way harder to read, but not impossible!

You can add an extra layer of encryption to your data by browsing through a Virtual Private Network (VPN). The first thing I’d recommend to the average person is whenever you’re out in the public…use a VPN service. It takes your data and puts it in an encrypted envelope so people can’t really intercept it and spy on that.

Also, put your data in the hands of technology companies that encrypt it. Edward Snowden, for example, recommends using SpiderOak instead of Dropbox (or at least protect your Dropbox folders with Truecrypt). You could use DuckDuckGo instead of Google. (If you miss Google’s powerful search algorithm, just use the !g function in DuckDuckGo.) Chat with OTR instead of Skype.

The Five Eyes can’t read the information on your computer if you’ve never been connected to the Internet. If you have extremely sensitive information, consider investing in a computer that’s never touched the Internet (known as an “airgap”).

If you plan to use an airgap, you might also want to remove any network chips, bluetooth chips, or even microphones and webcams from your new computer before using it.​ Along a similar vein, you could also use an operating system that’s bootable from a USB drive, and browse incognito. Tails is an operating system, which forgets your activities after you unplug.

Computers in Ministries and Embassies should all have the Bluetooth chip and USB ports physically removed. 

Protecting Your Phone

There is no way of preventing governments from eavesdropping on your phone or text messages; all these services pass through some form of government signal interceptors; this includes satellite phones. So unless you are not planning on making a phone call, the contents of your conversation and text messages as well as your location within a few meters will always be available to any agency targeting you.

 SmartPhones are like computers and are highly complex, making them very easy to be used as a surveillance tool against you. It is therefore wise not to use smartphones and revert to older GSM phones which still work and are better at making phone calls than the modern smartphones. Their small IT profile (aka lack of significant features) makes them next to impossible to compromise and they are cheap enough to replace frequently.

However should you be inclined to use a SmartPhone, then you should ensure that you do not install any third party software except the minimum amount of manufacturer-included applications required to satisfy your requirements. You should avoid using the GPS features, or use the device to browse the Internet. The best approach is to replace your device frequently and alternate between brands and phone types.

To protect your SmartPhone from becoming a listening device, you should invest in a signal blocker. A simple way to block signals from your phone is through a cheap and portable device called a Faraday cage, which can be purchased on Amazon or Alibaba for $50. These copper clad devices are rated up to -160dB of shielding, can block all cellular, bluetooth and WiFi signals to and from your phone. This device is handy when you want to keep your phone within sight but want to ensure that it is not used as a surveillance tool against you. Off course, in conjuction with placing an iPhone in DFU mode, the phone can be considered as secure as possible.

How to Tell if your Phone is Compromised

If you're worried about having your phone spied on, you're not alone! There are some tell tale signs, although these do not necessarily prove your device has been compromised.

  • If your battery is draining more quickly than usual, tracking software could be running in the background​ - Unless you're playing a bunch of games on your phone, your battery draining quickly could be a sign that you're being tracked. This is especially true when your phone is taking longer to charge. A longer charge time might indicate that an intensive app -- like a monitoring app -- is running.
  • If your phone constantly feels warm, spy software could be running​ - Your phone will get warm from time to time as it runs intense software like games, but if you aren't running anything other than Facebook and your phone feels like it could fry an egg, you could be the victim of spy software. This is not applicable while you are charging your device, some phones just get hot as the battery charges. However, if a phone becomes really warm to the touch, it may be a result of your phone being over-worked, and this might mean that a spyware application is running.
  • If your phone calls have been filled with strange noises or echoing lately, somebody might be listening in​ - if you've never had issues with your phone echoing during calls in the past, but you are now, you might have an uninvited guest on your phone call.
  • Check your phone's network usage​ - Did you know that you can monitor your phone's network usage by using your carrier's USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) codes?Spy apps work by sending data to the spy who secretly installed it on your phone. If your data, minutes, or text usage looks suspicious, the possibility that a tracking application is spying on your phone and sending data to whoever is spying on you is real.

If you are technically minded or know somebody who is, here is a way to set a trap and discover if spy software is running on your phone

  1. Buy a cheap WiFi router and plug it into the main router in your house. To do this, connect the WAN port of the new router into any of the Ethernet ports in the back of your main router.
  2. Be sure to change the subnet of the new router to be different from the main router. i.e. If the main router is on, then you should configure the other router to use
  3. Now connect your phone to the WiFi of the new wireless router you bought.
  4. Now connect a computer or laptop to the new router.
    1. Use a computer connected to the Internet and visit your cellular provider's website. Sign up for your provider's online account management system so you can have immediate access to your billing and use information, even before your paper bill arrives by mail.
    2. Take special note of any times where you may be unable to use your phone. Since a cloned cell phone appears identical to yours, you may discover that you are given messages stating that the mobile number is already in use, or you may find that you are unable to initiate or receive calls while the clone is being used by the perpetrator.
    3. Record the times, dates and frequency of these "cell usage blackouts" you may be experiencing and, if they are occurring for long durations and repeatedly throughout each day, contact your cellular provider with your concerns that you feel your phone may have been cloned.
    4. Cooperate with your cellular provider if asked for your permission for the company to initiate a detailed audit of your cell usage. The company will send you a highly detailed list of phone calls sent or received on your account over the month, and your provider will most likely ask that you highlight all numbers, dates and times which you are unfamiliar with.
    5. Install any free packet-sniffing tool. I recommend searching Google for "Open source packet sniffer"
      1. Now turn on the packet sniffer and send an email 
      2. You will see a ton of information show up on the packet sniffer. If you have chosen a good packet sniffer, you will have an easier time sorting through the data
      3. Pay special attention to the destination address. If you have spyware, you will see copies of your email being sent to an IP other than the IP of your SMTP server for your ISP. You will want to do reverse IP lookup any IP addresses that don't belong to you, to see which one is your ISP and which one is the spy software's data capture server.
      4. Some spy software is programmed only to send data at various times so you may need to leave your phone connected to the new router's WiFi for 24 hours to be sure you are not being spied on. During that time, you can't use your phone because it will create data traffic that may obscure the spy software's data stream when it happens.


​There is no cast iron guarantee that your data or that of your Embassy or Ministry can be protected. This is clearly evident from the Snowden leaks which showed that no one. and no agency. no matter how big and how much money it spends on security is immune from deliberate acts of leaks, espionnage or sabotage. Clearly, we live increasingly in a world where mass surveillance wether by Government, criminal organizations or multi-nationals has become the short cut to resolving differences and gaining competitive advantages. We should therefore be under no illusion that our privacy is safe or can be secured; however, the least we can do is understand the techniques that are used against us and make it as hard and expensive as possible for anyone to compromise our data.

Revision 1.01A - Subject to Amendments -



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